According to a 2011 RAND report, "Since October 2001, approximately 2 million U.S. troops have deployed as part of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Many of these previously deployed individuals have since left the military or retired, and most previously deployed National Guard and reservists have returned to their home communities" (Schell et al, 2011, p. iii). These "community dwelling veterans" seek services where they live – in their communities. So, for all of you who work in communities – and that's everyone – chances are you're providing services to veterans and their families. And that's the main focus of today's military social work. And yet, most of us, unless we work directly with the military, have no idea what might be required for effective practice with this population.
By all accounts, the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have exacted a significant toll on community dwelling veterans and their families. In response to this need, in 2010, the Council on Social Work Education published guidelines for educational competencies for advanced social work practice in military social work. The authors of these guidelines explained, "with no end in sight and the ultimate results of these wars uncertain, we are now challenged with both a military that is exhibiting the stress-related consequences of these long and multiple combat deployments and a rapidly growing veteran population in need of a wide range of combat-related physical and mental health care services. Every community in the United States has been affected, and service delivery systems are trying to respond. Military social work, as a field of practice and research, is critical to our relevance as social workers, to the advancement of new career options, and in our leadership among the helping professions... This does not mean that we endorse war or aggression, but rather that we extend meaningful help to those who have been affected. This is a moment in history when we can reassert our central influence as a pivotal healing profession in the midst of wartime and in the aftermath by promoting a vigorous social work research agenda and appropriate training to effectively prepare military social workers" (CWSE, 2010, p. 2).
In order to better understand both the training and education of military social workers, I spoke with a man who is on the forefront of the current reconceptualization of military social work. My guest, Anthony Hassan, is a retired Air Force officer with 25 years of experience in military social work. He served during Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2004 on the first-ever Air Force combat stress control and prevention team embedded with an Army unit. He led the largest military substance abuse and family advocacy programs in the Pacific which were recognized as benchmark programs and training sites for all other Pacific bases. He chaired the committee responsible for creating the Council on Social Work Education's model for advanced social work practice in military social work (CSWE, 2010) which I quoted a few minutes ago. And, if those bona fides aren't enough, he is currently the director of the Center for Innovation and Research on Veterans and Military Families at the University of Southern California's School of Social Work.
In today's Social Work Podcast, Anthony and I talked about the how the definition of military social work has changed over time, how educators and practitioners can use the CSWE guidelines, opportunities for advanced training at the master's and doctoral level in military social work at USC's school of social work, and online certificate programs for non-USC students. We talked about the use of a "virtual patient" as part of the training program. We talked about the central role that the profession of social work could and should play addressing the issues faced by active duty military, community dwelling veterans, and their families. We talked about the kinds of jobs that military social workers do. We ended our conversation with some resources for listeners wanting to know more.
A couple of notes about this interview. Anthony and I spoke for an hour and a half. Our conversation about education and training actually happened in the second half of our interview. Because I'm presenting it as "Part I" there are a couple of times when he makes reference to information that we discussed in the beginning of the conversation… which is now Part II. I hope that's not too confusing. Another thing that stands out about this interview is that, for the first time, I invited fans of the Social Work Podcast Facebook page to submit questions for Anthony. The response was fantastic. There were over 20 questions, most of which I couldn't ask. But those that were suggested on Facebook I identified as such. So, thank you to everyone who posted questions – you'll recognize your contribution to this interview. And I'll definitely be asking folks to submit questions for future podcasts. Finally, as with all my remote interviews, this one was done using Skype. Anthony was in Los Angeles and I was 3,000 miles away in Philadelphia. And now, without further ado, on to episode 68 of the Social Work Podcast, The Training and Education of Military Social Workers: An Interview with Dr. Anthony Hassan.
Download MP3 [37:17]
Jonathan Singer: So, let's talk about this for a minute. Let's talk about the training–
Anthony Hassan: Mm-hmm.
Jonathan Singer: – that you think that social workers should get in order to work best with these community-dwelling veterans and we can talk specifically about the CSWE Guidelines for Advanced Voluntary Social Work Practice that you’d shared. We can talk about the program at USC. You know, one of the questions on Facebook was what is the academic training in military social workers look like? Do schools of social work with military social work concentrations provide extra training on specific topics? And specifically, does USC’s concentration in military social work differ from other schools of social work that have concentrations in military social work?
Anthony Hassan: Great, great questions and I'll probably answer them in a roundabout way and one of the questions was well, what is a military social worker and, you know, we, the CSWE Steering Committee that I chair, we had to figure that out. We had to define what is military social work. Is military social work just those who wear the uniform and who serve in the Armed Forces? What about, you know, folks in Homeland Security and Public Health, are they military social workers? Or, what about the civilian social worker who works outside the military base, are they a military – so what is it? And I think in a nutshell, it's basically anyone who has worked with a service member, a veteran or their family member would be a military social worker.
So, if the practice of social work is what you're doing and you're primarily seeing veterans and service members and their families then we would call that military social work and we've tried to define the competencies, the advanced practice behaviors and knowledge that you need to do this work and they're clearly spelled out in the CSWE Guidebook but, you know, that was something we had to wrestle with, you know, as a military person my first thought was I don’t like that because I've always thought of military social work as being those who wore the uniform or who are wearing the uniform and doing social work in the military.
But, you know, that was – that’s too narrow and that’s why we said we want to be more inclusive rather than exclusive and we basically have said if you're working with veteran service members or their families and the primary focus of your work is to advocate for them, broker them, provide clinical services, navigate systems for them then we would call you military social work.
Jonathan Singer: Do you think that’s a definition that is different now than it would have been in say 1995? Is part of your discomfort in part because you went through the military, you know, you're a veteran and you retired from the military and you were, you know, but times have changed, is that part of it?
Anthony Hassan: Absolutely. I think times have changed and I think, you know, back in ’95 I probably would have only identified military social work as someone who wore the uniform in the Department of Defense and who was a social worker in the service. But I've quickly realized now that the need is greater and the most need is not in the services outside of the service and I think for social work it's time for us to step up, you know, it's time for us to embrace this population and recognize their needs. We shouldn’t lose this moment in time. We really need to capture it in a way that says, you know, we need to have a profession called military social work because there are many people who are doing this but also the set – and whenever you have an identified profession or specialty, you have to have competencies and so once we developed the competencies, it was very clear to us that there are specific knowledge and skills that you will need if you're going to do this and so those who have that, those are the ones that we want to call military social work.
Jonathan Singer: And so, so now there are these competencies and do social work training programs with specializations in military social work, do they follow this model?
Anthony Hassan: Well, that was the whole hope and wish and that’s what we want. We being the CSWE, we being the Steering Committee and the taskforce all felt that if you're going to establish a course, a sub-concentration or a concentration, a specialty, whatever you want to call it within your school of social work, you really needed to have a clear understanding of what it is that you were training to. What are the outcomes? What would be the walk-away competencies that you’d expect the student to have if you're going to have a course? So, this is a guidebook to really help someone write a course, write a concentration or even better embed some of these competencies throughout the entire curriculum so when you talk about families you include military families. When you talk about culture, you talk about military culture. When you talk about, you know, systems, you talk about navigating the VA or military systems of care.
So, I’m hoping that all schools of social work will recognize that they need to include in their curriculum some conversation and they can surely use the guidebook to help infuse these competencies and outcomes within all of the curriculum as they do for other populations, African-American, Hispanic, LBGT, etc. I mean, this is just another population that we need to continue to talk about. So, there are some schools that have said, you know, hey, look we don’t want anything to do with this. Okay, okay, I get it. They can't seem to separate perhaps war from the individuals and families who are affected or impacted by military service. That’s fine. But there are many schools who have reached out to us and have attended many conference sessions where they're very interested in developing a course or a concentration like we have here at USC.
And the courses that we have come up with at USC may not be the right ones or the right sequence of those but we're studying them or we're continuing to look at them and get feedback but based on what the work that CSWE and the Steering group did, we feel that these four courses kind of capture the competencies in a manner that someone walks away feeling capable, competent, has the knowledge and has an opportunity to have practiced these skills. So–
Jonathan Singer: And what are those four courses?
Anthony Hassan: Yeah, the four courses in our school are one is Military Culture which is just a one-credit course but it's 15 hours of really understanding military culture. Many of the things that I highlighted for you from basic things like what is Department of Defense? What are the different services? What are the different jobs all the way to confidentiality and how do you manage that? So, that’s like the core course everyone in this concentration has to take that Military Cultures course and then of course they can take two of the next three classes depending on what their focus is, if it's clinical, if it's health, if it's child and family. So, they'll take two of these three courses I’m about to mention.
The second course that we feel is important is Clinical Practice with Service Members and Veterans. So, the idea of this course is to really understand the development, the military life course, you know, what's military life about? How does that match up with your development, your normal life development, looking at those strengths, some of the, what do you call them, risk factors, protective factors as well, looking at mental health, talking about combat stress reactions, talking about PTSD and TBI and they're really teaching them about the evidence-based interventions. This course, we try to focus it on training more of the clinical practice so we really try to drill down in those evidence-based interventions in a way that the students walks away with a set of skills that they can begin to work with perhaps in their internship.
The other course is the Military Impacted by Military Service Course, understanding and intervening with military families and families meaning all families, mother, father, sister, brother, husband, wife, daughter, a son so we're trying to be extremely inclusive there. We're going to talk about family resilience. We're going to talk about military family violence and I know one of your questions that came in was about military family violence, intimate partner violence and so we will cover that and we'll talk about it. Again, there's so much to cover. I don’t want this to be a survey course where we're covering everything but there's so much to cover and sometimes that’s what happens and that’s what I’m looking at adjusting with these courses, these two get away from doing, talking about everything but talking about key areas and talking about them more in depth.
But again it's talking here about evidenced-based intervention models, cognitive behavioral therapies, emotionally focused couples therapy work, etc. And then the last course is one we call Health Challenges for Wounded Warriors and their Caregivers and we really felt this course was necessary because of the number of men and women who are coming back with, you know, wounds and lifelong injuries and amputations and loss of sight, etc. but also the impact that it has on their caregivers, not only a spouse but a family member or just looking at caregivers and even therapists and looking at secondary trauma, a vicarious trauma, etc.
So, we felt it was important to talk about these issues of health and illness and disability but also for students to walk away with a good understanding of how these systems of care within the DOD and the VA are servicing these veterans and caring for them and talk about policy issues in all of our courses about how to change policy and affect policy. So, we think these are the courses that one should have in a concentration but we could be way off but we're studying them. We're definitely getting feedback and we have adjusted over the last couple of years each of the courses and we're continuing to adjust. But they're all written with outcomes in mind from the CSWE Guidebook on military social work.
But the key piece here as we know is a signature pedagogy for social work is to field placement and that is the critical piece. The field placement is a requirement in your second year that you have to, you have your internship in a VA, a vet center or a Veteran service organization in the community but you have to work with veterans either on a macro or micro practice but you're definitely going to have to work with veterans. So, we believe that is what sends this home and we went from 14 students in this concentration two years ago to 80 this year. We have 200 who have signed up for next year. It's just taken off. We have over 1100 students in our program on ground. Of course, we just started at virtual academic program web-based and it looks like about 20% of those students in MSW program are interested in this concentration.
So, it's definitely growing and I think, you know, one has to do with just people have a desire to give back but it's also a highly marketable specialization right now. You know, the Department of Defense is looking for folks, the VA, contracting organizations. There are a number of non-profits that are springing up all over our community. We have over 60 veteran-service type organizations within the L.A. and San Diego county area. So, there's a lot of opportunities for social workers to work with veterans and military families and also do macro work as organizations grow and develop in advocacy and policy and so I think there's an attraction for many reasons for this concentration.
Jonathan Singer: So, one question, you know, we have folks from all over the world that listen to this podcast, can anybody take the intro course through USC? You said there is a web-based component. Can somebody sign up for that if they're in a school of social work that’s not USC or even not in the United States?
Anthony Hassan: Well, yes, well we're – well, they can always do that and that would be pretty expensive to take the one credit course as a degree course but what we're doing now is we're taking the materials where we're actually converting it to certificates continuing education units and we're going to have in a highly interactive web-based format. So, yeah, someone who’s overseas who wanted to know about military culture but by – in June we'll have it up where they'll be able to go online, pay a couple 100 bucks and get this course and if you wanted to a get a certificate, you’d have to take again 40 hours so.
Jonathan Singer: That sounds like an amazing opportunity for social workers all over the United States and even the world to have access to that type of specific training in military culture working with vets, their families, injuries, all that sort of stuff. That must be a huge undertaking for you guys to not only do the, you know, the CSWE standards for your own students but also thinking about it in terms of certificate programs that people can take online.
Anthony Hassan: Absolutely, it is and that’s why we have a center here and that’s what my center is designed to do, is really to be the leader in terms of education and training, research in a specific area, using research to inform curriculum and training. We've advanced some technologies, you know, when the person asked the question about, you know, has this war advanced the awareness and knowledge and treatment for PTSD and we were actually are developing a virtual patient, a veteran virtual patient. So, when we talk about innovative technologies that’s part of it, is use a virtual patient so that our students will meet the virtual soldier before they meet the very first live veteran. And so technologies are growing and that’s part of our center and our development here at USC is to develop technologies that can advance the practice skills of clinicians and students alike.
Jonathan Singer: I was at the Council on Social Work Education reception where USC unveiled this and it was unbelievable seeing those flat screen TVs where you could ask questions of this virtual reality client and have them respond.
Anthony Hassan: Yeah.
Jonathan Singer: It was amazing. It was–
Anthony Hassan: Oh, it is amazing and I’m very proud to be a part of this development and it's in the early stages but what makes us unique is this is the first time we'll have a standardized patient in social work or even behavioral health. I presented in an Institute of Medicine’s panel about quality assurance and I had mentioned the virtual patient and many folks became very interested in many applications. If you would let mind wander and get creative, there are many things that this virtual patient can do for our profession. We can have a virtual patient for almost any client we want. We can have a virtual patient that helps us, helps our student learn about a suicidal patient how to interact. I mean, just basic stuff to advance stuff like measuring the treatment fidelity of cognitive behavioral therapy of these clinician.
So, does this clinician really know how to do CBT according to the manualized treatment approach? We can be maybe eventually down the road use it to license people, you know. So, we can just let our minds wander and get creative with – this virtual patient has a lot of application. Now, there are a lot of naysayers out there who want to criticize it and I would say to them, you know, it is new. It is a little intimidating and scary but it's no way is this replacing a real client. We're just saying that this is an opportunity for students to interact with a standardized patient before they receive their very first patient. And we all remember what it was like the first time we had a suicidal patient or the first time we had a resistant patient or the first time we had an angry patient.
Jonathan Singer: Or an angry, suicidal, resistant patient.
Anthony Hassan: Exactly and so here is an opportunity for your students to really get that experience or something as simple as what is your first five minutes like with this veteran virtual patient, practice and it is just an amazing training opportunity and we're going to be studying in and looking at the immersability and believability of this virtual patient so that we can make it better. And we have – one of our partners is the Institute for Creative Technologies here at USC and they're well-known for the work with virtual patients, virtual reality and immersive kind of technology. So, we're very fortunate to have a partner in our research in our development like ICT. So, yes, I’m very excited.
So, a lot of the work that we're doing at the school is out of the center and so we feel very fortunate to have the infrastructure and the expertise to move our agenda and that is to make this area of behavioral health care for veterans and military families a priority and we've received a lot of national attention for it and I think it's good, not for us, I mean, yeah, it's, I guess it's good for us but it's really good for the profession. I mean, who would have ever thought that we’d have stuff about veterans at CSWE or at SWER. This is, you know, this is a movement that’s happening and I’m glad to see it and I’m glad to see that we're focused and interested in competence and that we're interested in making sure that we're addressing the unique needs of this population and we're still talking about World War II. We're still talking about Vietnam. We're going to talk about this population, this war Operation Iraqi freedom and enduring freedom for the next 20 and 30 years.
Some families in the military have never seen a peace time military. Their kids who maybe were three years old they're now 13 years old. One spouse stood up at a conference and said look Admiral (Mullen), I love all this prevention early intervention stuff but look our family has been at war for 10 years. We're past that and so we need to understand that this is going to continue to have long lasting effects on our families and our communities for many many years to come. I mean, we're now engaged in Libya. We just need to be aware that these men and women coming back to our communities may have unique circumstances that we need to be able to take care of and I think that’s my passion and motivation for the work we're doing here at USC and my desire to make sure that others understand it and get it because if you don’t get it as a veteran and we don’t connect, I’m not coming back. If I don’t come back, my problem gets worse and when it gets worse, it affects many people. It affects the community and so it’d be who’s all of us to try to know and to be as confident as we can if we're going to care for this population and if you don’t want to care for this population then I would say just say so.
You know, we all know in social work that if you don’t want to work with a sex offender, you just don’t work with sex offenders. If you don’t want to work with veterans and military families then don’t. But if you do or you’ve noticed that they're coming in to your agency more often then maybe you need to spin them up and get some training in that organization for your providers. So, you know, and I think social work as a profession needs to step up and get more involved in research in this area. If you look at the research that’s done in this area, it's done by psychology and psychiatry and frankly it drives me nuts.
We're social work and so appealing to all of you to consider doing research with veterans and military families from our perspective, the family perspective, the systems perspective, the person in the environment perspective because that’s what we can offer and I believe that we are the primary providers for this population. I know in the military we have more social workers than any other provider in behavioral health. In DOD, we have more providers, mental health providers and so social workers provide more mental health care in the VA than any of the other profession. We're a leader. We're invisible when it comes to research so I’m asking all of us to think about that and to really consider this is an area of viable research.
Jonathan Singer: If there are social workers out there right now who maybe masters level, maybe even bachelors level and they are getting inspired listening to you talk about wanting to understand how to best serve, you know, either community dwelling vets or anybody associated with military, can they come to USC and learn how to become a researcher? I mean, is that something that you guys can offer?
Anthony Hassan: Well, right now and the Ph.D. program is very selective of course, but we're looking at bringing in a senior researcher with a military social work research background and so that Ph.D. students coming to our program can make this a career for themselves and have the mentorship here within USC. So, right now we're focused on and recruiting some top researchers in this area who’ll research in NIMH, DOD, VA and so that we will have mentors and guides to educate and train the next generation of social work researches in the area of veterans and military families. So, yes, we're moving in that direction.
Surely if a student, an MSW student right now, we like I said we have about 200 who have identified themselves as military social work concentration students, we have a couple of them who are working in my center right now and are assisting with research projects. So, this is the beginning for them but they're showing an interest and I could tell you having presented in many conferences I’m always asked about that and we would hope that we can grow this area here at USC as well.
Jonathan Singer: You know another question that we didn’t specifically answer and maybe it's because it's answerable but what types of jobs do military social workers do?
Anthony Hassan: Yeah, absolutely, you know, where do they get employment and every agency in the community that will have a veteran or a family member and step, you know, knock on their door. It's just that some agencies and some communities will see more and they may – that’s all they may see. For example, the US Vets, Inc. here focuses on the homeless veterans and so that’s their whole program and they're national and they focus on nothing but homeless veterans so, you know, we have a lot of students who have their internships there and will get placed there. We have, you know, new directions, focuses on substance abuse in veterans and homeless veterans.
So, it just depends on what agency, you know, you're involved with. We have family courts now so you may work in the family courts that focuses on veterans, veteran courts so you may have an interest in legal, guardian or advocacy. We have now noticed that the Department of Children and Families has seen a need to better understand military families as they now interact more often. The Department of Mental Health in Los Angeles has a whole separate section for veterans so there's employment there. So, people are starting to identify sections or areas where they need to beef up staff in various organizations that maybe traditionally haven't focused on this as a separate population. Of course, you got the entire VA spectrum of employment, you know, Veterans Affairs, hospitals, outpatient clinics, community-based clinics.
You have vet clinics or vet centers or more of drop in centers are now springing up all over the United States. They have navigator programs where they're helping veterans navigate services. They have recovery care coordinators that are social work positions at the undergraduate level who will work with a veteran from the time they return with an injury throughout their entire life. There will be a case manager involved in their care, on and on and on. Schools, we have 143 schools that we're working with in San Diego. Ron Astor is the PI for the research project but we're really building capacity in those schools and so now we're focusing on military impact at schools and we have social work, 40 social workers in those schools who have an understanding of military culture and military challenges and the impact on families.
Just every agency you can imagine that is near a military facility or has a community, a large number of veterans in their community will start seeing a special division or section within that agency to care for veterans, not to mention all the contracting services or contracting companies that work for the Department of Defense. For example, we have social workers overseas who work with family violence and so all the family advocacy treatment managers are social workers and they're hired through a contractor, a Department of Defense contractor. So, you can go work as a military social worker overseas in the family advocacy program. So, I could go on and on but there are many many opportunities, you know.
Jonathan Singer: What are some resources that are out there for folks who are listening that want to know more about military social work?
Anthony Hassan: Of course, the Council on Social Work Education this handbook, you can find this book online at CSWE. I’d like the guidebook not just to guide curriculum but boy when you hand it to the student and you tell them hey look, when you finish your MSW degree, you should at least have knowledge and practice in these areas. So, field instructors and agencies should look at this document and say yeah, we can help advance the practice skills for this student in these areas. Oh yeah, we can do that or you know what, no we can't. And so I think it's a tool for the student, the professor and the field. Okay. So, that’s the CSWE document.
Another document I was just reading last night, it's called An Achievable Vision: Report of the Department of Defense Task Force on Mental Health. I just like the report. It really give you a sense of what's needed within the military and so it talks about the lack of providers who are educated in evidenced-based intervention, the need to keep providers who have military culture awareness. It talks about confidentiality. It talks about anything and everything that an individual would want to know about the challenges faced by men and women in uniform and their families. So, I think that’s a great tool, I mean, a great document to have.
I’m looking at some documents here. I was just looking at the Institute of Medicine’s 2010 report last night. I think it's an excellent report and I just sent it to all my staff asking them to again refresh themselves on these recommendations at the Institute of Medicine is pushing out and so you will get a really a good sense of what's happening, what are the challenges, what are – what's the community need to go, what are researchers need to do and what do we need to do to train, what do we need to train them on. It's a very very nice and well-done report and a book that I read, I think is a decent read is the book by Hall, (2008) called Counseling Military Families, you know, as a perspective of a civilian provider.
Then, of course, you’ve got Hogue and Castro, their 2004 article which is the article that really kind of got everybody aware of what was going on. It's called Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems and Barriers to Care. I'll be remiss though if I didn’t give you Tonelli and J. Cock’s Invisible Wounds 2008. That was the seminal work. So, I hope that’s enough. We can go on with more but I think those three reports are huge. Invisible Wounds, DOD Taskforce report and the Institute of Medicine’s report are just the foundation pieces that you would need to read about if you really wanted to study this and learn more about it.
Jonathan Singer: Yeah and we'll put the links to those on the Social Work Podcast website. You know, Anthony I want to thank you so much for spending the time with us today and talking with us about military social work.
Anthony Hassan: Thank you so much for the opportunity. It was my pleasure and again this is my commitment so anything I can do to help now and in the future, please don’t hesitate to call upon me.
Jonathan Singer: That’s great. Thank you so much.
Resources and references
Council on Social Work Education. (2010). Advance Practice Behaviors for Military Social Work Practice. Alexandria, VA: Author. http://www.cswe.org/File.aspx?id=42466
Department of Defense Task Force on Mental Health (2007). An Achievable Vision: Report of the Department of Defense Task Force on Mental Health. Falls Church, VA: Author. http://www.health.mil/dhb/mhtf/MHTF-Report-Final.pdf
Hall, L. K. (2008). Counseling military families. New York, NY; Taylor and Francis.
Hoge, C.W. & Castro, C.A. (2005). Impact of combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan on the mental health of U.S. soldiers: Findings from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research land combat study. In Strategies to Maintain Combat Readiness during Extended Deployments - A Human Systems Approach (pp. 11-1 – 11-6). Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-HFM-124, Paper 11.Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http://www.rto.nato.int/abstracts.asp.
Institute of Medicine. (2010). Preliminary Assessment of Readjustment Needs of Veterans, Service Members, and Their Families.Washington, DC: Author. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/Returning-Home-from-Iraq-and-Afghanistan-Preliminary-Assessment.aspx
Institute of Medicine. (2010). Provision of Mental Health Counseling Services under TRICARE.Washington, DC: Author. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/Provision-of-Mental-Health-Counseling-Services-Under-TRICARE.aspx
Rizzo, A., Reger, G., Gahm, G., Difede, J., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2009). Virtual reality exposure therapy for combat-related PTSD. In P. J.Shiromani, T. M.Keane, & J. E.LeDoux (Eds.), Post-traumatic stress disorder: Basic science and clinical practice. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
Schell, T. L., Tanielian, T., Farmer, C.M., Jaycox, L. H., Marshall, G.N., Vaughan, C. H., & Wrenn, G. A. (2011). Needs Assessment of New York State Veterans: Final Report to the New York State Health Foundation. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR920.
Tanielian, T. & Jaycox, L.H. (Eds.). (2008). Invisible wounds of war: psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
APA (6th ed) citation for this podcast:
Singer, J. B. (Host). (2011, June 20). The training and education of military social workers: Interview with Dr. Anthony Hassan [Episode 68]. Social Work Podcast. Podcast retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://socialworkpodcast.com/2011/06/training-and-education-of-military.html